Understanding Car Brakes: Types, Functions and How They Work

By -

Every vehicle is equipped with a braking system. The car brakes most often used by vehicle manufacturers have two systems, namely the disc system and the drum system. 

In accordance with the energy produced by a car engine, both have different working systems. Apart from that, disc brakes and drum brakes also have several advantages and disadvantages. 

As technology develops, brake systems also become more sophisticated. Now ABS brakes are available which are able to control the car even if it brakes suddenly.

As a car owner, you need to understand how car brakes work. That way, you can also better recognize the signs of damage and find out the cause. 

How car brakes work

Basically, a vehicle's braking system is a complex series of systems. The brake work process involves triggering friction between the road and the vehicle's tires so that the vehicle can stop moving.

In general, how car brakes work consists of two series of processes. The following is an explanation of these two processes. 

1. Brakes provide a friction effect

When the brake is pressed, the position of the tire which was previously rotating will change to static. This makes the wheels, which were previously moving at high speed, slowly slow down. 

As the movement of the wheels slows down, the car's gravitational force will also shift and make the wheels rub against the road surface. This is what makes the wheel finally stop spinning. 

2. Brakes convert kinetic force into heat

When the brake is pressed, the vehicle will not immediately stop completely. The brakes will not immediately stop the kinetic forces on the vehicle. 

The brakes will work by transferring the kinetic force or force of the vehicle's motion into heat power. This heat is formed when the wheels rub hard against the road surface.

Definition and function of brakes on a car

Car brakes are components in the vehicle engine whose role is to regulate the vehicle's speed. Brakes are often considered part of a vehicle's safety features.

Because the presence of brakes will affect safety when driving. Brakes that don't work will cause the vehicle's speed to not be controlled properly, making it dangerous to drive. 

The function of the brakes on a car is to regulate the speed of the vehicle. Brakes are used to slow down a vehicle or stop it completely. 

Brakes are specifically designed so that the vehicle can stop smoothly so as not to threaten the driver's safety. Apart from that, the presence of brakes is also important to ensure the vehicle remains stopped when parked.

Car brake parts

Brake components can function well because each component in them is interconnected and works together. The car's brake system will not be optimal if the components are incomplete or damaged.

The brake consists of several parts. Generally, car brake parts are as follows.

1. Disc brake

The disc brake is the main component, where this component has the function of rotating simultaneously with the car wheels.

2. Rem master

The next component is the master brake. The master brake will collect the pressure transmitted from the brake pedal. Later, the pressure that has been collected will be sent to the drum component.

3. Drum brake

Drum brakes are components that work by reducing tire speed. This component is able to reduce the speed of the tire when it gets pressure from the drum.

4. Pedal rem

The brake pedal is located inside the vehicle. This pedal is the first to receive direct contact from the driver when the vehicle's speed is to be reduced or stopped. You will find the pedals under the steering wheel.

5. Brake poster

The poster brake is placed into the brake component so that the driver does not need to exert too much force to press the pedal. This will make the pressure feel lighter when the car brakes suddenly.

6. Proportioning valve

Proportioning valve is a cooling component so that friction between brake components does not trigger heat energy which causes the vehicle to overheat and the brake pad does not harden.

Types of car brakes

There are several types of brakes that are often used on vehicles. The following are the types of brakes. 

1. Car drum brakes

Drum brakes or drum brakes and the way car brakes work are by relying on friction between the lining and the drum. The main drum brake components are the wheel cylinder, brake lining and brake drum. 

The drum itself is a component that is shaped like a bowl. This drum brake component is capable of rotating according to the rotation of the wheel.

When you step on the brake pedal, the brake fluid will push the car's brake piston to move the lining. The canvas will also press the drum which will then cause a frictional force to slow down the car wheels.

Generally, drum brakes have wider linings. This wider canvas surface can also produce strong braking power but still feels soft. 

These brakes are suitable for large cars. Moreover, drum brakes also tend to be cleaner, because the working system is more closed compared to disc brakes.

However, this closed working system can actually prevent air from cooling the friction. Clean, indeed, but sometimes it is more difficult to get air circulation. Apart from that, the response of drum brakes is also slower than disc brakes.

If you have a large vehicle such as a bus and truck, then use drum brakes. Meanwhile, modern cars, sports cars and other cars with large CC are more suited to using disc brakes. 

2. Car disc brakes

Disc brakes are also often called disc brakes . The disc brake component consists of a disc and brake caliper which contains a piston and lining. 

Just as the name suggests, the way disc brakes work and the function of the brake system or brake function relies on clamping the disc disc on the car tire . 

When you step on the brake pedal, the brake master will push the brake fluid to flow to the piston. The caliper will then push the piston to move, making the lining clamp the disc. 

The speed of the car's wheels will then become slower until it will finally stop. This disc brake working system also relies on clamping the disc itself which is directly connected to the vehicle wheels.

Not only that, disc brakes also have a good cooling system through the cavities or holes in the disc. Heat from brake lining friction can be immediately reduced because air flow is very free. 

However, the presence of these cavities or holes can be a drawback in itself. Discs become easily dirty due to dust and other dirt so that disc performance can be disrupted.

Reasons why car brakes don't work

In some situations, the brakes may feel weak. Brakes that don't work are brakes that cannot be used to reduce the car's speed properly, or are often referred to as brake failure or flat brakes. 

Well, brake failure doesn't happen without a reason. There are several reasons why car brakes don't grip or go flat, namely: 

1. Lack of oil or brake oil

Just like other components in a vehicle engine, the braking system also requires oil. This oil functions as a lubricant for the brake lining so that the lining can press the disc smoothly without getting stuck.

When the braking system lacks oil, the lining easily clogs. As a result, when the brake is activated, the lining does not succeed in pressing the disc in time, causing the brake to fail.

2. The lining is worn

Car brake pads or brake pads are a very important component in the brake system. The canvas is what transmits pressure to the disc so that the car wheels can stop moving. When the pad wears out, it can erode the surface of the disc. As a result, the discs cannot function properly and the brakes fail.

Usually, worn lining occurs due to age. The older the car is, the higher the potential for the lining to wear out. 

3. Brake booster problem

Every braking system is equipped with a booster . The function of the car brake booster is to apply pressure to the pedal when you press it. 

With use, the booster may decrease in quality, so it cannot provide maximum pressure on the brake pedal. This makes the pedal feel very hard when stepped on.

How to deal with flat car brakes

How to deal with car brakes that are flat or not gripping need to be adjusted to the cause. Below are several treatment efforts based on the cause of the brakes breaking.

1. Change the car's brake fluid

The first method is suitable if the brake fluid has decreased and the brakes become clogged. You can buy brake fluid freely, either at a special oil sales place or also at an online marketplace .

Make sure you choose brake fluid from the best brand. Generally, the price of this oil depends on each brand. The following are good  car brake fluids and their prices:

Dobeli Super Heavy Duty Brake Fluid BF30 – Rp50.000

Fuso DOT 3 Brake Fluid Clear Neutral Brake Oil 300 ml – Rp. 45,000

Jumbo DOT 3 Brake Fluid Neutral Red Brake Oil 300 ml – Rp. 45,000

Wurth Brake Fluid DOT 4 250ml – Rp65.000

Total Brake Fluid DOT 4 500ml – Rp. 70,000

Fuso DOT 3 Brake Fluid Neutral Clear Neutral Brake Fluid 946 ml – Rp. 70,000

Prestone DOT 3 Brake Fluid Neutral Minyak Rem 1 L – Rp90.000

Amsoil Brake Fluid DOT 3 & 4 355 ml – Rp150.000

Redex Brake Fluid DOT 3 48 x 50 ml – Rp187.000

Lucas Brake Fluid Synthetic DOT 4 – Rp211.000

2. Replace the brake pads on a new car

If the cause of brake failure is worn linings, then the best solution is to replace new linings. Replacing the lining can be done yourself at home or in a workshop. 

The price for replacing new brake linings at a repair shop ranges from IDR 120 thousand to IDR 392 thousand, depending on the type of vehicle. The following is an estimate of the cost of replacing car brake linings: 

Car brake service costs

Brake repairs at a repair shop will of course be expensive. The cost of servicing this car varies, depending on the type of car, the severity of the damage, and the repair shop you go to.

Generally, car brake service costs start from IDR 250 thousand for repairs at public workshops or official workshops. This price is just a service price only.

However, if it is necessary to replace the linings, the price for new linings generally starts from IDR 300 thousand for two pairs of front brake linings.

Apart from the price for servicing car brakes or replacing linings, it is also necessary to replace the brake fluid. Brake fluid costs start from IDR 60 thousand. 

Where are the car brakes located?

If you are a new driver or car owner, perhaps you are not familiar with the location of the brakes. So, where are the car brakes?

On the driver's side, there are three pedals. The brake pedal is the pedal in the middle position. Meanwhile, the leftmost pedal is the clutch pedal and the rightmost pedal is the gas pedal.

Characteristics of a car's brake pads wearing out

If the brake pads are worn out and worn out, it's a good idea to replace them immediately. To check brake pads, you can also find out from the number of kilometers listed on the speedometer . 

In general, the total mileage and service life of brake linings can last up to 40,000 kilometers. 

However, in some types of cars with manual transmission, the sign that the lining wears out is when they reach 70,000 kilometers. Apart from that, there are several signs that your car's brake linings are worn out and need to be replaced immediately, such as: 

The car's brake pad deepens.

The brakes feel vibrating when you step on them at high speed.

There was a sound of metal rubbing when the brakes were pressed.

Brake fluid has dropped, it is possible that the brake linings need to be replaced.

Meanwhile, you can hand over how to replace car brake linings to the staff at the workshop to make it more practical. 

Because if you do it yourself, you might do it wrong and end up causing damage that could have been avoided.

When should you replace car brake pads?

The time to replace brake linings should be adjusted to the distance traveled. When the vehicle has reached a certain mileage, it is recommended to replace the brake linings.

It's best to replace the brake pads when the vehicle has traveled up to 40,000 km. However, there are also several car brands whose pads can last up to 70,000 km.

Price of car brake linings

The costs you need to pay for the process of replacing brake linings for vehicle brands in Indonesia will actually vary greatly.

The price can be around IDR 100,000 to IDR 300,000. If you don't understand how to replace drum brake linings, you can just take your car to a repair shop to make it more practical.

Generally, the price of the canvas and the cost of this service will depend on the material and brand that will be used, whether the spare parts used are genuine or not.

The price of original brake linings generally tends to be more expensive, which is around twice as much as non-original  car spare parts . However, the more expensive the car, the more expensive the brake pads will be. What's more, prices for rear and front brake linings can also be different. However, these costs can be covered by car insurance. 

Car insurance for brake repair costs

Tips from Lifepal! Also check out the review of why car brakes don't work when the engine is off in another Lifepal article!

Brake service costs will be even lower if you have car insurance  which will cover the cost of replacing brake linings according to the type and benefits of insurance you choose. 

The process is also easier because the insurance company not only helps with the claims process, but has a partner workshop with a good reputation that you can directly refer to to handle your car repairs. 


Post a Comment


Before writing a comment, you must read the terms below:
1. It is not allowed to put active links,
2. There must be no elements of rioting or pornography.
3. If you create spam, your comment will be deleted, and
4. Please ask questions and share your thoughts in good and constructive sentences.

Post a Comment (0)

#buttons=(Ok, Go it!) #days=(20)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Learn more
Ok, Go it!