Terlengkap! Ini Penjelasan Komponen ECU Mobil dan Fungsinya

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Modern cars with the latest technology already use ECUs or Electronic Control Units. This car ECU component is very useful for four-wheeled vehicles that already use injection technology. However, ECU is actually not a new technology. 

Let's look at the function of the ECU in cars, the types of ECUs, the causes of damaged ECUs and how to repair them, as well as the price of car ECUs.

ECU Functions in Cars

The function of the car ECU component is as the main electronic circuit system to control other parts. The ECU can have effects on the car, including the following:

Mixes fuel easily and precisely
In order for a car to run, fuel must be mixed with air. This car's ECU components can mix them precisely because the system is computerized. Before using an ECU, fuel mixing, engine rotation speed and ignition timing were done mechanically. The ECU makes this process easier.
More precise fuel supply
The fuel used during the combustion process must also be suitable. An ECU that uses a computer program can access data so that the engine moves according to fuel dosage requirements.
Determines the duration of fuel injection
Apart from the amount, the ECU also functions to determine the duration of fuel injection. So that the injector can supply fuel at the most appropriate time. The combustion process becomes optimal.
Set up other systems
Apart from the car's combustion system, using the ECU can also regulate other systems such as the engine cooling fan, turning on the car alarm, car key identification, car AC and other functions.
Indicates component failure
With the ECU component, the car can also detect component damage and then display the damage on the dashboard. So the driver doesn't need to check components too often.

Types of Car ECU Components

It turns out that ECU has at least 7 types, including TCM, ECM, BCM, and others. What do all these types mean?

1. TCM (Transmission Control Module)

This TCM is a module in cars with automatic transmission. The function of this module is to regulate transmission shifts according to engine RPM and driving conditions.

2. ECM (Engine Control Module)

This type of ECU regulates the engine's operation. Engine work starts from starting, turning on the spark plugs, fuel supply, to the engine cooling process.

3. BCM (Body Control Module)

This car ECU component regulates the work of the car's electrical system. These include lights, wipers, horns, and even entertainment features in the car cabin on the dashboard.

4. PCM (Powertrain Control Module)

As the name suggests, this module regulates power train performance. So that the flow of power from the engine to the wheels runs efficiently. This module is found in cars with four-wheel drive

5. ABS Control Module

This module is used in cars with brake systems that have ABS technology. This module plays a role in preventing tires from slipping and regulating braking when driving on slippery roads. It can be said that it also plays a role in safety systems such as ESC (Electronic Stability System) and HSA (Hill Start Assist).

6. HVAC Control Module

This ECU module plays a role in controlling circulation in the car cabin according to the weather conditions outside. This module is found in cars with an automatic AC system.

7. Airbag Control Module
The last one is the ECU module to deploy the airbags when a hard impact occurs on the car.

Causes and Characteristics of a Damaged Car ECU

Car ECU components can be damaged, just like other car components. When the car's ECU is damaged, it will definitely be very troublesome. This damage generally occurs due to several things, for example long distance traveled and the old age of the vehicle. Injection cars aged 10 years and over are usually susceptible to this damage.

You can feel some of the characteristics below when the ECU component is damaged. If you feel or find any of the signs below, you should have it checked at the nearest repair shop.

  • Difficulty starting the car.
  • Fuel usage becomes wasteful even though the distance traveled is not too far.
  • The engine often stalls when the car is moving.
  • Engine power feels reduced and heavy when driving.
  • The check engine light on the dashboard continues to come on. It could also be that the lights are completely dead.

How to Repair ECU

Before taking your car to a repair shop, you should know what the repair shop mechanic will do for repairs when the car's ECU is damaged. So you can discuss with the technician when carrying out their duties.

First, the mechanic will check the PCB paths. Is the line exposed to liquid or is there a broken part? Second, the electronic components on the undercarriage of the car will be checked. Then thirdly, the car's Elco (electrolytic capacitor or electrolytic condenser) will be replaced with a Farad (unit of electrical capacitance) and the same voltage.

If necessary, a physical check will be carried out to determine the location of the damage as a whole. Apart from that, maybe the car will also be dismantled so that the components inside the car can be checked with a multitester.

Car ECU Prices

What if it turns out that the car's ECU cannot be repaired? The solution is to replace the car's ECU as a whole. Car ECU components cost around IDR 1 million and above. This price depends on the type of car and its quality. 

There are also ECUs that are used or removed from other cars. The price can be cheaper if you use a used ECU. Meanwhile, as mentioned above, the price is also influenced by the sophistication and type of car. European cars usually have ECU prices that are more expensive than Japanese cars.


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